Pranks, Hacks + Hoaxes: A History of San Francisco Activists Taking Creative Pokes at The Man
The Original Fake News: Mark Twain Invents a Massacre (1863)
Generations before Kellyanne Conway ever dreamed up the Bowling Green Massacre, Mark Twain made up a massacre of his own—and wrote a fake news story about it. Yep, back in 1863 the writer used his talents to satirize a stock dividend fraud by a San Francisco water company; he reflected on his financial hoax years later:
The San Francisco papers were making a great outcry about the iniquity of the Daney Silver-Mining Company, whose directors had declared a "cooked" or false dividend, for the purpose of increasing the value of their stock, so that they could sell out at a comfortable figure, and then scramble from under the tumbling concern. And while abusing the Daney, those papers did not forget to urge the public to get rid of all their silver stocks and invest in, sound and safe San Francisco stocks, such as the Spring Valley Water Company, etc. But right at this unfortunate juncture, behold the Spring Valley cooked a dividend too! And so, under the insidious mask of an invented "bloody massacre," I stole upon the public unawares with my scathing satire upon the dividend cooking system. In about half a column of imaginary human carnage I told how a citizen had murdered his wife and nine children, and then committed suicide. And I said slyly, at the bottom, that the sudden madness of which this melancholy massacre was the result had been brought about by his having allowed himself to be persuaded by the California papers to sell his sound and lucrative Nevada silver stocks, and buy into Spring Valley just in time to get cooked along with that company's fancy dividend, and sink every cent he had in the world.
Read Twain's fake news story at hoaxes.org.